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Information available in OpenCivitas web portal has been collected through questionnaires sent to local authorities and integrated with data from other official sources (Ministry of the Interior, ISTAT, MIUR, Revenue Agency, etc.)

In this way a new database was built which allows to analyse in detail outputs, inputs, management methods and organizational choices adopted by local authorities in service provision.

What are standard expenditure needs?

Standard expenditure needs measure the financial need of a local authority considering territorial features and sociodemographic characteristics of resident population.

It is an allotment coefficient that represents the share of expenditure attributable to each municipality, given that 1 stands for the overall expenditure for a specific service

What is the historical expenditure?

The historical expenditure is the amount spent by a municipality in one year to provide services to citizens and recalculated on the basis of the information collected through questionnaires

What is standard expenditure?

Standard expenditure of each local authority corresponds to the current expenditure obtained by multiplying the overall historical expenditure of the sector by the allotment coefficient of the standard expenditure need of each local authority.

How is the database updated?

Correction of mistakes and changes are made periodically on the basis of the documentation provided by local authorities The database relating to municipalities was updated to 2016 through FC30U questionnaires in 2018 and refer to 2015 and 2016.

Data relating to provinces and metropolitan districts refer to 2015.

Which years are considered for historical expenditure calculation?

Data for historical expenditure calculation refer to 2015 and 2016.

Which services are analized?

The municipality services for which standard expenditure needs were analysed are: general administration, public roads and planning, local public transport, waste management, social services, nursery services, local police, public education services.

Local public transport was not included in OpenCivitas data as the historical expenditure cannot be calculated homogeneously for the Italian municipalities that provide this service.

The services provided by provinces and metropolitan districts are: management of school buildings, management of provincial roads, environment protection and enhancement, general services and transport service planning.

When are data updated?

Data related to municipalities are updated every year after gathering data of questionnaires.

Why standard expenditure needs are compared with historical expenditure?

To allow citizens to assess the level of historical expenditure for each service provided by local authorities. The difference in euro is positive when the historical expenditure is higher than the standard, it is negative when the standard expenditure is higher than the historical.

What does it mean when a local authority has an historical expenditure higher than the standard?

An historical expenditure exceeding the standard indicates that the expenditure incurred by a local authority is higher than the average expenditure in municipalities with the same number of inhabitants.

Is it possible to assess the efficiency of a local authority on the basis of the difference between historical expenditure and standard expenditure?

The difference between standard expenditure and historical expenditure is not enough to assess the efficiency of a local authority. A standard expenditure different from a historical expenditure depends on the efficiency in the provision of services, the quality and the quantity of services provided.

What is the standard level of service?

The standard level of services in each municipality is the amount of services averagely provided by local authorities with similar characteristics in relation to each function.

What does it mean if a local authority provides an amount of services greater than the standard?

An amount of services greater than the standard indicates that the municipality provides more services than those averagely provided by other local authorities with the same segment of population.

What are the levels of services provided?

The levels of the services  provided measure the services provided by a municipality in relation to the average of the municipalities with the same segment of population.

What are the determinants of standard expenditure?

The determinants of standard expenditure measure, for each local authority, the weight of the variables used to determine the overall expenditure needs and the single services. These indicators therefore highlight the characteristics of the local authority that mainly generate its standard expenditure needs. For municipalities, the variables that make up standard needs are 66 divided into 15 homogeneous groups. For provinces and metropolitan areas, 13 variables contribute to the determination of standard expenditure needs.